Chemical composition in toothpaste
Toothpaste is a complex mixture. Base toothpaste is usually made of friction agents, moisturizers, surfactants, thickeners, sweeteners, preservatives, active additives and pigment flavors. Special toothpaste refers to toothpaste with special properties. Fluoride toothpaste with active fluoride can prevent dental caries; Chlorophyll toothpaste added with chlorophyll has a certain effect on preventing gum bleeding and oral odor; Medicated toothpaste adds various drugs to the toothpaste, which can alleviate gum bleeding, oral odor and dentin sensitivity.
Main components of toothpaste
1. Friction agent
It is composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide (titanium dioxide), etc.
The most basic component in toothpaste is used to remove all kinds of dirt on the surface of teeth and enhance the cleaning effect of brushing teeth.
Commonly used friction agents include calcium carbonate, calcium hydrogen phosphate and aluminum hydroxide. Calcium carbonate has certain damage to enamel, while aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate are high-quality friction agents. The different particle size and treatment process of friction agent are also one of the reasons for the price difference of toothpaste.
It is composed of phosphoric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, carbonic acid, sodium salt of silicic acid, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), etc.
The main function of the buffer is to regulate the alkaline substances in the acid-base of the toothpaste, which can enhance the stability of the toothpaste. However, the proportion of its components in the toothpaste should be strictly controlled to avoid damaging the fragile oral mucosa due to excessive alkalinity.
Mainly water, sorbitol, propylene glycol and glycerol (glycerol).
The ingredients of humectants are edible or non-toxic and harmless. They are used to dissolve the solid and liquid of toothpaste and make the mouth of toothpaste not easy to dry. The addition of humectants provides us with a better brushing experience.
Auxiliary ingredients are non essential ingredients, which are substances not necessarily contained in the toothpaste. The addition of different ingredients makes the toothpaste have more functions and effects. The special ingredients in the new functional toothpaste have great advantages over the traditional toothpaste, but many of them have advantages and disadvantages for the oral cavity, which should be selected according to individual needs.
Here are some common toothpaste auxiliary ingredients:
1. Foaming agent
Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (sodium lauryl sulfate) and other surfactants.
Foaming agent can emulsify and decompose oily residues in the mouth, has strong cleaning and descaling ability, and can also make users feel the brushing effect more intuitively. However, such substances will stimulate the oral mucosa, so the manufacturers will strictly control the addition amount and ask them to avoid eating by mistake as much as possible.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium), hydroxyethyl cellulose (sodium), colloidal silica, etc.
Also known as stabilizer, it can adjust the fluidity and stability of toothpaste and increase the taste and experience of brushing teeth.
3. Edible pigment
Food grade pigments added to toothpaste.
In the past, the color of toothpaste was mainly blue-green, giving people the impression of whitening and green environmental protection. However, now people look at the problem more rationally - the important thing is that the research shows that organic pigment molecules will attract microorganisms and shorten the shelf life of toothpaste. Therefore, now pure white toothpaste accounts for the majority, and the color stripe and particle toothpaste are gradually reduced.
Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid and its salts, p-hydroxybenzoate, etc.
The toothpaste itself should be clean and pollution-free, so a trace of preservative that can destroy the structure of bacterial cells will be added to the toothpaste. The toothpaste placed for a long time may form mildew spots of different colors, so it can't be used anymore.
5. food flavors
Compounds derived from plant essential oils and some aromatic odors.
Food flavors can mask the smell of the mouth, and the aroma components are helpful for communication, but there is no cure effect.
In fact, oral odor may come from microbial bacteria. The best way to remove oral odor is to ensure gum health, maintain oral hygiene and pay attention to eating habits.
In order to improve the taste of the toothpaste, a small amount of saccharin was added to the toothpaste. Since glycerol used as wetting agent also has sweet taste, the dosage of saccharin is generally 0.01% ~ 0.1%. Xylitol can also be used as sweetener.
7. Natural active ingredients
Green tea extract, coconut oil, plant essential oil, Chinese herbal ingredients, and extracts of some flowers.
Green tea and other natural plant ingredients are friendly to oral mucosal cells and have some regulatory effects such as "falling into the fire", but they are difficult to treat certain diseases. They should not be paid too much attention. If there are symptoms, they should be treated in time, and they should not rely too much on some ingredients in toothpaste.
The perfume for toothpaste is mainly mint, which is an indispensable ingredient to give the toothpaste a cool feeling. Peppermint is also divided into menthol (Menthol), peppermint oil and other substances, as well as spices derived from it. In addition, fruit flavors, such as citrus spices, can also be used, but they are strictly restricted as toothpaste and spices.
Fluoride containing inorganic salts in toothpaste include sodium fluoride, potassium monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride, etc.
Fluoride in toothpaste can resist dental caries, and low-dose fluoride can make the tooth surface stronger.
In fact, the main function of toothpaste is cleaning. We should not completely rely on the fluorine in toothpaste to resist dental caries. Daily eating habits and hygiene habits are more important.
10. Hydrogen peroxide
Also known as hydrogen peroxide, H2O2.
Adding a small amount of hydrogen peroxide to toothpaste can also sterilize and bleach teeth, but it is difficult to remove the discoloration of teeth caused by pathology, and it will stimulate gums and oral mucosa - so the use of hydrogen peroxide has its own advantages and disadvantages.
11. Ingredients of Western Medicine
Bactericidal and anti-inflammatory ingredients can effectively clean the mouth and alleviate and treat periodontal diseases to a certain extent. However, long-term use is easy to cause drug resistance of oral bacteria. Therefore, don't forget to refer to the doctor's advice when using pharmaceutical toothpaste.