1、Harm of microorganisms to cosmetics
Generally speaking, microorganisms can grow and reproduce as long as there are water, carbon source, nitrogen source, minerals, trace metals, oxygen, appropriate temperature and pH value. Cosmetics generally have the conditions for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
Especially in recent years, the use of a large number of nutrients (such as ginseng extract, placenta extract, hydrolyzed protein and vitamins) in cosmetics has created better nutritional conditions for the growth of microorganisms. Mold can reproduce on the surface of the product, causing the product to become moldy, while bacteria can reproduce inside and outside the product, leading to product corruption.
Microbial contaminated products show the following phenomena: discoloration inside and outside the product. This is due to the production of pigment by bacteria. Red, black and green mildew spots are formed on the surface of the product. This is due to different pigments produced by molds. The product is inflated. This is caused by gas or unpleasant smell produced by microorganisms, especially alcoholomycetes.
The product emits sour taste. This is because microorganisms decompose organic matter to produce acid, which reduces the pH value of the product. Emulsion failure and delamination. It may be due to bacteria and molds to decompose the organic nutrients in the ointment. The emulsion is damaged, the stability becomes worse, and there are changes in varying degrees such as viscosity change, delamination and loss of luster.
2、Sources of microbial contamination
There are two main ways to cause microbial pollution in cosmetics: first, microbial pollution due to raw materials, operation, process, equipment and transportation in the production process, which is called primary pollution; Second, microbial pollution caused by inattention to hygiene in the process of use is called secondary pollution.
The sources of primary pollution mainly include the following aspects:
In particular, some aqueous raw materials (such as animal and plant extracts) and some powdery raw materials with strong adsorption are often easy to be polluted by microorganisms.
Some links in the production of deionized water, such as ion exchange resin after reverse osmosis, are also easy to be polluted by microorganisms in the process of use, so that the produced deionized water is polluted. In addition, microorganisms can reproduce in large numbers during the standing process of deionized water.
As some equipment in direct contact with the contents is difficult to disassemble and disassemble in structure, it is difficult to thoroughly clean the elbows and joints, resulting in microbial pollution.
The manufacturing environment is of great significance to ensure the quality of products. Due to unreasonable layout, regardless of flow of people and logistics, and imperfect corresponding sanitary facilities, such as air filtration and dust removal device, air supply and exhaust device, disinfection and sterilization equipment, it is very easy to pollute the manufacturing environment.
This is a big pollution source. If the employees are not provided with corresponding health training, education and health management, it is difficult to ensure the health quality of the products.
The secondary pollution comes from people's hands and atmosphere, mainly Gram-positive bacteria and molds. Improper use and storage by consumers are the main reasons for the deterioration of products. The main reasons are as follows: when taking the product into hand, it is found that the quantity is too much, and then it is poured back into the bottle; The products are overdue, and some seasonal products are not used much, but the rotation cycle is long; The product is placed beside the washbasin or in the bathroom for convenient use. Due to the high temperature and humidity, it is not only easy to breed microorganisms, but also affect the stability of the product.
(3) Control of microbial contamination in cosmetics
For the control of microbial pollution, on the one hand, it is to control the source of microbial pollution from the product production process and use process; On the other hand, an appropriate amount of preservative is added to the product formula to build a good anti-corrosion system inside the product and inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. The following mainly introduces the microbial control methods in the product production process.
1.Hygienic control of production environment
Cosmetics enterprises have specific regulations on site selection, plant design, equipment layout and architectural requirements. Generally speaking, the production workshop shall be divided into manufacturing room, semi-finished product storage room, filling room, packaging room and container cleaning, disinfection, drying, storage room, warehouse, inspection room and office area according to the production process, so as to connect the upper and lower processes, separate the flow of people and logistics and avoid cross pollution.
The production area shall be divided into cleanliness levels. The production links with possible exposure of contents such as content manufacturing and filling shall be located in the clean area with higher cleanliness level (100000 ~ 300000 level clean area). The air in the clean area must be purified and filtered, and a certain pressure difference shall be maintained. The pressure difference between different levels of clean areas shall not be less than 49pa
The pressure difference with the outdoor shall not be less than 9.8pa. A buffer room shall be set between the clean area and the non clean area. The operator must go through dressing and air shower when entering the clean area. The floor of the production workshop on the building is made of non permeable, non absorbent and non-toxic materials, and the surface is flat, wear-resistant and anti-skid.
The wall shall be coated with light color, non-toxic, heat-resistant, moisture-proof and mildew proof paint, with smooth surface and no dust, which is convenient for cleaning and disinfection. The disinfection methods of the production environment include daily ultraviolet radiation disinfection and regular chemical disinfection. On the ground and wall surfaces, 0.05% of sodium hypochlorite and 0.5% of new bromine are used for regular disinfection. The operating room is generally sealed with 1%~5% formalin and 0. 05%~0. 2% new bromo spray.
In addition, the design of the air system in the production environment should be different according to the special requirements of each area of the plant. It should consider the air quality required for operation in this area, which will require several different air treatment systems. The design of these systems should be based on the air quality required by each service area. The design of these systems must consider several aspects, including the quality of incoming air, temperature, humidity, exchange speed and the requirements of system design for air purity, as well as the location of inlet / outlet vents and the layout of pipes controlling air flow mode.
2. Microbiological control of equipments
The manufacturing equipment of products include manufacturing kettle, mixer, filter, pump, heat exchanger, pipeline, storage tank, filler, etc. Containers, equipment and pipelines that directly contact raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. It must be made of materials that are non-toxic, corrosion-resistant, non scaling, and can be cleaned and disinfected repeatedly.
Generally, stainless steel is preferred, the inner surface shall be smooth, without depression and crack, and the surface adsorption force is low; The structure shall be able to be disassembled for easy cleaning and sterilization. The surface of the console and the outer surface of equipment and appliances are generally irradiated with 70uw / cm2 ultraviolet sterilization lamp not less than 25min; Manufacturing kettle, storage tank, filter, pipeline, etc. are generally washed with sterilized deionized water above 80 ℃ for 30min, and 75% ethanol or other bactericide can be added when necessary.
3.Microbiological control of raw materials
The main raw materials for the production of products include water, surfactant, oil, wax, moisturizer, thickener and powder raw materials, as well as amino acids, vitamins, enzyme preparations, etc. The sterilization method of raw materials shall be selected according to different raw materials.
For example, the microorganisms contaminated by powder are mainly Gram-positive bacteria and molds, which usually adopt EO ethylene oxide and dry heat sterilization; The deionized water used for manufacturing is mostly Gram-negative bacteria. Heating sterilization, filtration sterilization and ultraviolet sterilization can be adopted: in comparison, oil, wax and moisturizer have less chance of being polluted by microorganisms, and the killing of microorganisms can be guaranteed in the heating manufacturing process; So far, no effective method has been found for the products with poor stability such as enzyme preparations.
Deionized water or distilled water is generally used for cosmetics, and various miscellaneous bacteria will be produced after several days of storage. In order to ensure the quality of water, microorganisms in water should be tested every day. If there are no obvious problems, the test frequency can be reduced, but this must be based on a proven effective system. However, microbiological inspection shall be carried out for microbiological control devices and water consumption points in the water treatment system at least once a week. If the test results of a certain water intake point exceed the standard, a comprehensive analysis must be carried out until the causes are found out and decisive measures are taken to correct them.
4. Microbiological control of employees
The regulations on hygienic supervision of cosmetics clearly stipulates that personnel directly engaged in the production of cosmetic products must have a health examination and obtain a health certificate every year, and patients with 8 diseases or carriers are not allowed to engage in product production activities. Human pollution mainly comes from hands, clothes and hair, and the microbial categories are mainly Gram-positive bacteria and molds. In order to prevent microbial pollution caused by personnel, education and training in health management must be carried out frequently, so as to improve the personal health awareness of operators, wash hands, cut nails and change clothes frequently, and truly understand the significance of wearing work clothes, hats, masks, gloves and regular disinfection in the hygienic code for cosmetics manufacturers.
5. Pollution control of packaging
Unsanitary packaging materials (barrels, bottles and caps) will cause microbial pollution of cosmetics, which need to be cleaned before putting into use. Specific packaging is one of the measures to maintain the quality of cosmetics. The preservation of the same type of product has different effects on preventing microbial contamination depending on its packaging type. The effect of using a rotary cover is better than a sliding cover.
6. Microbiological control of products
In addition to perfume, nail polish, nail polish and other products used in the raw materials have high anti-corrosion effect, most products are not strong anti-corrosion ability, need to add preservatives. This article comes from the Internet and is used for learning and communication. The copyright belongs to the original author. If there is any infringement, please contact to delete it.